Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences <p>Journal<strong> of Medical Research and Health Sciences</strong> aims to improve health status and quality of care for individuals, families and communities. The Health Science Journal (Print ISSN : 2589-9023, Online ISSN: 2589-9031) aspires to provide the scientific knowledge through the publication of peer-reviewed, high quality, scientific papers and other material on all topics related to Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Health engineering, Epidemiology, Genetics, Nursing, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Public health, Psychology, Physical therapy, and Medicine ensuring a rapid turn-around time possible for reviewing and publishing of articles freely for research, teaching and reference purposes.</p> <p><strong>Volume 5 Issue 01, January 2022 </strong></p> <p><strong>Submission Open: 25-12-2021 - 25-01-2022 for January issue 2022 <br /></strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p> </p> en-US (Dr. Sonia Sayyedalhosseini) (Mr Gaurav Daga) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Self- Examination of Breast of the Students of Nursing College in Bangladesh. <p>A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 150 nursing students at Nursing College of Khwaja Yunus Ali, Enayetpur, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh. The objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge and practice about breast self- examination of nursing students. The study found that the knowledge of the respondents on the overall breast self- examination are not complete knowledge. Majority respondents (90.0%) knew the method of breast self- examination. Among them (57.0%) had their complete knowledge, (30.0%) had their partial knowledge and (12.6%) had their wrong knowledge. About (90.0%) respondent’s had their practice of breast self-examination. Among them (11.11%) respondents examined daily, (18.52%) examined every week, (48.15%) examined once a month and (22.22%) had their irregular breast self -examination practice. About (78%) examined their breast during bathing and (22%) examined at night. It was revealed that most of them (48.0%) belonged to the age 22 years and the mean age of the students was 21.73 ± 1.028 years. About (70.0%) students come from nuclear family and (30.0%) students belonged to the extended family. This study though a little one, might provide important information to the concerned authority to take proper measures and also provide clear for farther in-depth study. The accessibility of health education and the counseling service to the students should be ensured so as to achieve the expected level of awareness on personal health care.</p> Baby Chakroborty , Shahanaz Parvin, MD. Mahbub Hossain, Md Jakir Hossain Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences Mon, 05 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Clinical and laboratory predictors for acquiring COVID-19 infections in patients on maintenance hemodialysis in 5th wave of epidemic in Myanmar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are at high risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and developing severe COVID-19 infection because they have low innate immunity as well as poor antibody response to COVID-19 vaccine. This study aimed to assess the clinical and laboratory predictors for 5<sup>th </sup>&nbsp;wave of COVID-19 infections in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A hospital based, case control study was conducted in July 2022 to November 2022 among patients on MHD who had confirmed COVID-19 infection by nasopharyngeal swab PCR. Data were collected by using standardized forms and analysis was done.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 22 patients out of 61 patients on maintenance hemodialysis ( MHD) developed COVID-19 infection in same public hemodialysis (HD) center in Yangon. The comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters (age, BMI, vaccination history, type of vaccine, duration from last vaccination , smoking status, vaccination time, comorbid status, duration of hemodialysis, hemoglobin level, serum albumin level and anti-Spike antibody level) was made between infected group and non-infected group. Patients in both groups had 4 doses of vaccine: Covaxin, Sinovax, Sinopharm and Covishield. Baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different&nbsp; between infected cases and non-infected cases;&nbsp; mean age was 49.77 ± 11.58 years vs 51.92 ± 13.6 years; BMI was 19.75 ± 3.00 kg/m<sup>2 </sup>vs 20.03 ± 2.76 kg/m<sup>2 </sup>; duration from last vaccination was 37.64 ± 2.22 days vs 38.77 ± 3.62 days; number of current smokers was 4 vs 8 ; and vaccination time in the morning was 14 vs 29 patients. The proportion of patients with past COVID-19 infection was the same; 63.6% (14/22) in infected group and 66.7 % (26/39) in non-infected group. Hemoglobin level was lower in infected groups (8.26 ± 2.07 gm% vs 8.33 ± 2.02 gm%); and serum albumin level was lower in infected group (42.47 ± 4.82 gm/dl vs&nbsp; 43.17 ± 4.10 gm/dl) too. The race, religion, comorbid status (diabetic nephropathy, coronary heart disease) and the duration of hemodialysis was not different between 2 groups. The proportion of patients with cerebrovascular accident was higher in infected group. Median (IQR) anti-Spike antibody level of infected cases was&nbsp; 4732 (5206) U/mL and it was 3195 (4883) U/mL in non-infected cases; it was not different significantly.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The baseline characteristics like age, race, religion, &nbsp;BMI, comorbid status (diabetic nephropathy, coronary heart disease), smoking status, duration of hemodialysis, past COVID-19 infection, anti-Spike antibody level, vaccination time and duration from last vaccination were non-predictors for 5<sup>th </sup>&nbsp;wave of COVID-19 infection among patients on MHD who had 4 doses of COVID-19 vaccine. The likely predictors were cerebrovascular accident, low hemoglobin and low serum albumin.</p> Khin Phyu Pyar, Sai Aik Hla, Kyaw Thu Yein Lwin, Zar Ni Htet Aung, Kaung Myat, Lay Maung Maung, Ye Min Hein, Lynn Htet Aung, Myo Min Thant, Myo Maung Maung, Moe Htun Zaw, Ye Htook Mg, Nyan Lin Maung, Thurein Win, Kyaw Thet Mg, Sai Su Phone, Kyaw Zay Ya, Aung Phyoe Kyaw, Zay Phyo Aung, Myo Thant Kyaw, Sit Min, Thein Aung Moe, Kaung Myat Oo, Myat Ko Ko Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Profil Hématologique, Biochimique Et Hormonal Au Cours De La Grossesse : Cas Des Pre-Eclamptiques Versus Gestantes En Bonne Sante Apparente Dans La Ville De Lubumbashi, RDC <p>Les paramètres hématologiques, biochimiques et hormonaux évoluent pendant la grossesse, au cours de la pré-éclampsie et en&nbsp; postpartum<strong>. </strong>L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer le profil hématologique, biochimique et hormonal de la pré-éclampsie. Une série de 84 cas et 84 témoins a été colligée. Les cas et les témoins ont été appariés par rapport à l’âge des patientes et à l’âge de la grossesse.&nbsp; Le sang des cas et des témoins a été prélevé en vue de l’Hémogramme, du dosage de la ferritine, l’acide urique, la protéine C réactive, la ?-HCG&nbsp; et l’œstradiol. Les données ont été analysées à l’aide du logiciel SPSS. Le profil hématologique des patientes affectées par la pré-éclampsie était caractérisé par une hyperleucocytose (GB 10<sup>9</sup>/l&nbsp;: 9,78 ± 6,23 vs 6,80 ± 1,56) à composante granulocytaire (GRA 10<sup>9</sup>/l&nbsp;: 6,72 ± 5,18 vs 3,88 ± 1,21), un indice de distribution des globules rouges élevé (IDR %&nbsp;: 16,90 vs 15,79 ± 3,05) et une thrombopénie relative (PLT 10<sup>9</sup>/l&nbsp;: 180,17 ± 90,09 vs 233,44 ± 56,09 ) avec une composante des larges thrombocytes (P-LCC 10<sup>9</sup>/l&nbsp;: 91,16 ± 25,70 vs 64,74 ± 32,20). Le profil biochimique était caractérisé par une hyper-ferritininémie (Ferritine ng/ml : 207,55 ± 268,11 vs 11,43 ± 16,04),&nbsp; une hyper-uricémie (Acide urique mg/dl&nbsp;: 6,48 ± 2,82 vs 4,19 ± 0,70) et une inflammation (Protéine C réactive mg/l : 53,22 ± 57,66 vs 11,33 ± 24,17). Quant au profil hormonal, c’est une hypo-oestrogénémie (Oestradiol pg/ml&nbsp;: 1163,74 ± 1129,04 vs 2742,43 ± 496,90) relative et une élévation de la ?-HCG&nbsp; (?-HCG&nbsp; mUI/ml&nbsp;: 19577,39 ± 29984,43 vs 39621,93 ± 61602,74) qui le caractérisent. L’inflammation, la thrombopénie, l’élévation de la ?-HCG et l’hypo-oestrogénie sont les principales caractéristiques du profil hématologique, biochimique et hormonal de la pré-éclampsie.</p> Joseph Mwansa Chola, Mwembo Tambwe Albert, Ngwe Thaba Jules, Kubiole Manteka, Tamubango Kitoko Herman, Shombo, Noha Mutangala, Kakudji Luhete Prosper, Kinenkinda Kalume Xavier, Kalenga Muenze Kayamba Prosper, Kakoma Sakatolo Zambèze Jean Baptiste Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 21st Century Discoveries in the Physiology of Adaptation and Dramatic Changes in the Validation of Substance Dependence <p><strong>Summary</strong>. The article shows that the current level of physiology does not disclose the biological mechanisms of the organism transition from one range to adapt to a higher with an increase in the regular forces of the stimulus above sub-extreme. A new trend in the physiology of adaptation - proqredient adaptation, explains the mechanism of increasing the tolerance of the organism, with dependence on psychoactive substances (PAS ). It is scientifically proved, that dependences of the organism on PAS not the disease, and the states like&nbsp; proqredient&nbsp; (progressive) adaptation.</p> Baitubaev D.G, Baitubaeva M. D Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Difference between Type 1 And 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p>Type 1 diabetes mellitus involves autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells which create insulin. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as autoimmune ?-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency. In type 1 diabetes mellitus the pancreatic beta cells primarily lost. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a progressive loss of insulin producing beta cells in pancreatic islets. The immune destruction of beta cells is partly mediated by high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Type 2 diabetes mellitus also named as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and adult onset diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as progressive loss of ?-cell insulin secretion frequently occurring on the background of insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired beta cell function and insulin sensitivity and is often accompanied by other metabolic abnormalities.</p> Gudisa Bereda Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500